Mr. Winkler, the 2nd

Mr. Winkler, the 2nd

The new construct could have the advantage that the Chinese government won’t put any obstacles in the way of the deal. The leadership in Beijing had previously torpedoed a direct sale of Tiktok’s US business to the software company Microsoft. It introduced a new rule according to which software algorithms can only be sold abroad with the permission of the authorities.

Trump, for his part, had rejected a deal in which Oracle would act as a technology partner of Tiktok with a minority stake a few days ago. The Department of Commerce then started the countdown for Tiktok to be kicked out of the American app stores. The app should no longer work in the USA from mid-November. Tiktok and Bytedance filed a lawsuit in Washington.

What is new is that Tiktok will now transfer five billion dollars to an education fund in Texas, as Trump said during an election campaign appearance in Fayetteville, North Carolina. He had previously requested that the US government should get some sort of commission for bringing about the deal.

The education fund should ensure "that the real history of our country is taught"said Trump. A few days ago he announced the formation of a commission to promote patriotic education – the Republican justified this with the fact that the historical importance of slavery was currently being overemphasized.

Bytedance announced on Sunday of the billion donation "first found out in the news" to have. Bloomberg reported that Trump negotiated it on Friday in a phone call with Oracle founder Larry Ellison and Walmart CEO Doug McMillon.

Tiktok already had a cloud deal with another US company – Amazon’s IT subsidiary AWS. Trump has attracted attention more often in the past with attacks against the founder and boss of the online retailer, Jeff Bezos. Bezos owns the newspaper privately "Washington Post", in which Trump is often criticized. Oracle founder Ellison, on the other hand, is one of the most prominent supporters of Trump in Silicon Valley. Walmart, on the other hand, is an Amazon competitor.

The judge ruled after a lawsuit by WeChat users against the actions of the US government. Above all, she argued that the WeChat stop would deprive users of a central communication platform and thus violate their constitutional right to free speech. The plaintiffs have shown that there is no adequate alternative. An injunction is justified because the immediate damage would be too great, even if the main proceedings were in favor of WeChat and the users. The government, however, was unable to convince them that a complete ban was the only way to allay the security concerns.

75 years ago the United States won World War II – today it is a nation in decline. The renowned historian Heinrich August Winkler explains in an interview with t-online why there is hope for the West despite Donald Trump.

The 20th century was considered the American, but the US is now far removed from the influence of yesteryear. Instead, its global influence is waning. Meanwhile, US President Donald Trump wants to win the November 3rd election with aggressive slogans. But his populist agenda is anything but new, explains historian Heinrich August Winkler in an interview with t-online.

There is deep uncertainty not only in the USA, the European Union is also in crisis. How should one deal with Hungary and Poland who are dismantling the rule of law? Is the political culture of the West on this side and on the other side of the Atlantic about to end? What mistakes has Germany made since reunification – and how can they be corrected? You can read the answers of the leading German state historian here:

t-online: Mr. Winkler, September 2nd is a historic date: 75 years ago Japan surrendered, the Second World War also ended in Asia, and the USA triumphed as the leading power in the West. Today is the martial one "America First" Remaining of President Donald Trump. What happened?

Heinrich August Winkler: Not everything about Donald Trump’s politics is new. The watchword "America First" for example, it did not have its historic premiere through Trump. It comes from the deeply nationalist, anti-Semitic and isolationist opposition to former US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the early 1940s. Trump has followed this example.

Like his historical role models, the US president uses aggressive populism to achieve his goals.

Trump is a legacy of isolationist populism in the United States. Political populism is an American invention: the term came up at the end of the 19th century when the People’s Party was founded, a movement mainly supported by farmers in the Midwest, which relied on direct democracy, agitated against the urban elites and against all kinds from immigration. Trump’s presidency is by no means a break with the previous political history of the United States, but a link in a chain of developments.conclusion in argumentative essay

Above all, Trump’s presidency illustrates America’s social division. Many European observers are still amazed at how uncritically the traditional Republican Party supports Trump’s behavior.

That can also be explained. Before Trump’s election, there was a decisive turning point: The Republicans, the "Grand Old Party", were to a certain extent conquered by the tea party movement. Their xenophobic motives and also those "America First"Claims then reappeared with Trump. These elements have to be put into a larger context if one is to understand the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election.

Heinrich August Winkler, born in Königsberg in 1938, taught contemporary history at the Humboldt University in Berlin until his retirement. Winkler is one of the most important German historians, his publications such as "The long way west" or the "History of the west", are standard works. The publishing house C.H. Beck (Munich) Winkler’s new book "How we became what we are. A brief history of the Germans" published.

In fact, the Democratic Party made it pretty easy for Donald Trump to win his election four years ago.

That’s right. After the defeat of the Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton, a self-critical debate began in the party, which culminated in the accusation against Clinton and her team of having campaigned too much on the needs of the liberal supporters in the big cities, while the concerns of the regular voters in the workforce in "Rust Belt" have been neglected. I think this criticism is very justified.

Daybreak: The West has created its biggest problems for itself

Could we get a similar surprise in the November 3rd election as we did four years ago? Trump is trusted to perform practically all tricks and disruptive maneuvers in the election campaign.

With Trump you have to be prepared for the worst, American democracy is currently in danger. But I’m counting on civil society in the US to be so strong that any attempt by Trump to create dictatorship-like conditions will be doomed to failure.

Even though Trump is trying to torpedo postal voting?

The new head of the US Post has clearly contradicted Trump because of his statements on the postal vote. He’s still in office.

Heinrich August Winkler: The historian is an expert on the history of the West. (Source: Reiner Zensen / imago images)

The fact that we have to seriously talk about whether an election in America will be democratic in 2020 is a scandal in itself. Around 30 years ago the USA was the undisputed leading Western power, today it looks like a staggering giant. Don’t you think that’s amazing?

There was this one historic moment that the conservative publicist Charles Krauthammer denied in 1989/90 "unipolar moment" named. That was when the east-west rivalry ended with the collapse of the Soviet empire – while the US remained as the last superpower. At that time, the political scientist Francis Fukuyama coined the term from "end of the story"…

… which, however, turned out to be an illusion.

Correct. With the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 at the latest, the vulnerability of the USA became apparent. Since then one can only speak of a supremacy of the United States with reservations. At the same time, the rise of the People’s Republic of China took place at the turn of the millennium. For more than a decade now we have lived in a multipolar world with a number of "Global players", maybe also in the early phase of a new bipolarity. The time of the unipolar moment has expired.

The US is therefore all the more dependent on its allies in Europe. Instead, Donald Trump fervently complains about Germany and Chancellor Angela Merkel. Is the transatlantic friendship about to end?

Transatlantic cooperation is currently being put to the test, but I think it is wrong to speak of its end. Europe and America are still linked by a common political culture, that of the West. Nor is the special German-American relationship about to end. Also for very practical reasons: Europe is simply not in a position to strategically replace the USA on a global scale. If there is a new US president in the form of Joe Biden next year, he will adopt a more constructive and cooperative stance towards Europe and Germany. But as a historian, I can of course only speculate about the future.


How we became what we are: a brief history of the Germans

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It’s always easy to talk about America’s problems, but there is also cause for concern on our side of the Atlantic.

So let’s talk about what there is to criticize about German and European politics.

Gladly. Let’s start with ourselves: What do you find fault with German politics?

During the years of the East-West conflict, we have got used to the fact that the USA takes responsibility for our security in an emergency. This attitude survived reunification – and thus complicates the urgently needed debate as to whether Germany should not also take on more responsibility in the military field. Instead, we have often acted in an unconvincing way as Europe’s peace power.

As a larger and economically stronger country, the reunified Germany did not want to scare off its neighbors in Europe.

Sure, but we Germans have not asked ourselves the urgently needed question of what it means that our country has become a nation state again in 1990 – albeit one of the post-classical kind that exercises parts of its sovereign rights together with other states and transfers others to supranational institutions Has.

Despite its integration into the EU, Germany’s behavior is often viewed critically by partner countries.

We Germans are often attested that we are the moral leader of Europe. I recall the European quarrels during the refugee crisis in 2015. There is definitely cause for German self-criticism. And we shouldn’t feel that we are morally superior to other European states out of the feeling that we have learned exemplary lessons from our guilt-laden past before 1945. Our neighbors rightly view this as a new variant of German arrogance.

Versailles Palace on January 18, 1871: In the presence of Otto von Bismarck, Prussia’s King Wilhelm I was proclaimed German Emperor. (Source: imagebroker / imago images)

The "nation" But in this country it is an expression that is viewed critically.

We Germans have ruined our first nation-state, the Reich founded by Otto von Bismarck. There is no doubt about that. But to conclude from this that the nation-state is per se obsolete is bold. More than any other country in Europe shares this assessment. That must be clear to us, and it should be discussed: Why is it so difficult for us Germans to understand that many European countries have nothing to do with the term "post-national democracy" can start?

A term that the historian Karl-Dietrich Bracher once coined for the old Federal Republic.

Bracher referred to the Federal Republic as "post-national democracy among nation-states". But we have to realize that in those states in Europe whose independence we Germans trampled underfoot in the Second World War and in some cases even in the First World War, a greater need to preserve their own identity has developed than we do in our country the case is. After 1945, a process of turning away from nationalist traditions gradually began.

More likely in the old Federal Republic before 1990, right?

Yes, many of the old German prejudices against western democracy have survived more strongly in East Germany than in the old Federal Republic. In West Germany, a new German self-image has been agreed in long debates. Only because of this, the philosopher Jürgen Habermas was able to express his pride in 1986 at the unconditional opening of West German society to the political culture of the West. The state-decreed anti-fascism of the GDR led to a turning away from German national attitudes much less than the free formation of opinion in the western part of the country.

For East Germany this is "long way west"As you called one of your main works, not yet completed?

In view of the radically different developments in divided Germany, this is not surprising. The distance from everything to be found in the east even more than in the west "Strange" is an example of this. This is one of the inherited burdens of the division of Germany, which has not been completely overcome even 30 years after unification.